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Documentos de Discusión
C. "Elections as Targeting
Abstract: This paper develops a model of electoral
turnout where parties compensate voters for showing up
to the polls. Existence and uniqueness conditions are
shown to impose substantial restrictions on the uncertainty
about partisan support faced by the parties, and on the
distribution of voting costs among citizens. The model
predicts that voters in the minority will be more likely
to vote, and that turnout increases with the importance
of the election. The model can generate the observed correlation
between election closeness and electoral turnout, lthough
the cause of this correlation may depend on the distribution
of voting costs.
C., and S. W. Parker "Deception
and Misreporting in a Social Program"
Abstract: We investigate empirically the extent
of misreporting in a poverty-alleviation program in which
self-reported information, followed by a household visit,
is used to determine eligibility. Underreporting may be
due to a deception motive, and overreporting to an embarrassment
motive. We find that underreporting of goods and desirable
home characteristics is widespread, and that overreporting
is common with respect to goods linked to social status.
Larger program benefits encourage underreporting and discourage
overreporting. The effect of benefits on underreporting
is significant under a variety of specifications. We also
investigate the effects of education and gender on misreporting.
S. "Does Wealth Explain
Black-White Differences in Early Employment Careers?"
Abstract: In this paper I inquire about the
effects initial wealth has on black-white differences
in early employment careers. I set up a dynamic model
in which individuals simultaneously search for a job and
accumulate wealth, and fit it to data from the National
Longitudinal Survey (1979-cohort). The estimates show
that borrowing constraints are tight for both race groups.
Regime changes reveal that differences in initial wealth
account almost fully for the racial gap in wealth and
wages at the beginning of employment careers, but their
effect tapers off and completely dissapears several years
after graduation. In contrast, differences in the labor
market environment and in preferences are shown to account
fully for both racial gaps, in wealth and in wages, persisting
several years after High School graduation.
S . "The Catalan Premium:
Language and Employment in Catalonia"
Abstract: In this paper I measure the contribution
of knowing Catalan to finding a job in fCatalonia. In the
early eighties a drastic language policy change (normalització)
promoted the learning and use of Catalan in Catalonia
and managed to reverse the falling trend of its relative
use versus Castilian (Spanish). Using census data for
1991 and 1996, I estimate a significant positive Catalan
premium: the probability of being employed increases between
3 and 5 percentage points if individuals know how to read
and speak Catalan; it increases between 2 and 6 percentage
points for writing Catalan.
S., and N. Melissas, "Corruption,
Extortion, and the Boundaries of the Law"
Abstract: We consider a set-up in which
a principal must decide whether or not to
legalise a socially undesirable activity.
The law is enforced by a monitor who may be
bribed to conceal evidence of the offence
and who may also engage in extortionary practices.
The principal only declares the activity illegal
if the activity if "very harmful"
and if the private benefit (received
by the agent if she breaks the law) is "high".
We present comparative static results and
highlight policy implications.
D ., Sadka, J., and J. L. Silva-Mendez,
"Litigation and Settlement:
New Evidence from Labor Courts in Mexico"
Abstract: Using a newly assembled data
set on procedures filed in Mexican labor tribunals,
we study the determinants of final awards
to workers. On average, workers recover less
than 30% of their claim. Our strongest result
is that workers receive higher percentages
of their claims in settlements than in trial
judgments. We also find that cases with multiple
claimants against a single firm are less likely
to be settled, which partially explains why
workers involved in these procedures receive
lower percentages of their claims. Finally,
we find evidence that a worker who exaggerates
her claim is less likely to settle.
M., and S. Rendón, "Over-Education
in Multilingual Economies: Evidence from Catalonia"
Abstract: Individuals with deficient language skills
may compensate for this disadvantage in the labor market
by acquiring more formal skills. Catalonia's economy is
characterized by linguistic diversity and provides thereby
a unique opportunity to measure the incidence of language
proficiency on over-education. Catalan language, formerly
confined to informal uses, became co-official with Spanish
and the language of instruction in the early eighties.
This change, however, did not undermine the intensive
use of Castilian in most spheres of communication. Descriptive
evidence seems to suggest that individuals with better
language knowledge are more likely to be over-educated.
This can lead us to think, as is usually the case in the
public discussions, that individuals who are no fluent
in the language of instruction tend to under-educate,
since they are discouraged to attend school. However,
once we estimate a model that controls for individuals'
socio-demographic characteristics, the opposite emerges:
language knowledge is shown to have in fact a negative
effect on over-education. This effect, although robust
to accounting for endogeneity of language knowledge and
significant at the individual level, is mostly non-significant